Going Psycho over the Psychosocial Development Stages

I highly recommend this site for all of your questions regarding Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial stages of development. I really don’t think you can go wrong with all of the awesome content they have. Their website is super easy to navigate and I can’t say enough good things about it! Their graphics rock like the one pictured below.  To find more of these visuals all in one spot, click here to find it on my Instagram highlights.

Image 9-26-19 at 3.00 PM
Illustration by Cindy Chung

Here’s a brief rundown of Erik Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial Development that I found on Quizlet (free online flashcard site) and put into a handout for easy review.

Trust vs. Mistrust
(birth- 18 months)

Characteristics include:

  • Needs must be consistently met for infant to develop trust in others and environment
  • Visual contact and touch are important in building trust
  • Most important relationship = primary caregivers

Issues include:

  • Separation
  • Lack of stimulation
  • Pain
  • Unfamiliar routine, people and environment

Interventions include:

  • Prompt/consistent care
  • Encourage parental involvement
  • Provide appropriate stimulation

Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
(18 months- 3 years)

Characteristics include:

  • Gaining control of their bodies and learning new skills
  • Increased autonomy and self-esteem
  • Shame and doubt result when shamed into learning new skill (i.e., potty training)
  • Most significant relationship = parents

 Issues include:

  • Separation
  • Fear of bodily harm
  • Loss of autonomy
  • Loss of routine

Interventions include:

  • Parental involvement
  • Encourage normalization through exploration of environment
  • Implement routine
  • Provide opportunities for control

Initiative vs. Guilt
(3- 5 years)

Characteristics include:

  • Begin to initiate, not imitate play
  • Show initiative by asking “why”
  • Most significant relationship = family

Issues include:

  • Separation
  • Lack of control and independence
  • Magical thinking and egocentric thought lead to misunderstanding and fear

Interventions include:

  • Parental involvement
  • Increase opportunities for control
  • Maintain routines
  • Assess and increase understanding

Industry vs. Inferiority
(6- 12 years)

Characteristics include:

  • Develops self-worth by refining skills
  • Capable of learning numerous skills and information
  • Most significant relationship = school and friends

 Issues include:

  • Separation from normal activities associated with home, school and peers
  • Loss of control
  • Concrete, literal thought leads to misunderstanding

 Interventions include:

  • Parental involvement
  • Promote peer interaction
  • Provide activities that promote sense of success and mastery

Identity vs. Role Confusion
(12- 18 years)

Characteristics include:

  • Developing sense of identity separate from family
  • Substitute ideals for experience
  • Contemplate moral issues
  • Most significant relationship = peer groups

Issues include:

  • Lack of privacy
  • Body image
  • Separation from peer groups
  • Forced dependence

 Interventions include:

  • Promote peer interaction
  • Promote privacy
  • Provide opportunities for choice, control, and self-expression

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s